Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal


Zone de texte éditable et éditée

A Short History of Fish Domestication

A Short History of Fish Domestication
© Choubert,G.INRA
The Egyptians and the Chinese first pioneered aquaculture in around 2500 BC. The precise origins of aquaculture are unknown, although there are several theories, ranging from the concentration of fish in naturally formed ox-bow lakes, to their isolation in ponds and rice fields during the monsoon floods.

Aquaculture did not gain prevalence in Europe until the middle ages, when meat consumption was forbidden and pond-farming of carp became popular. A decline occured during the 19th century due to improvements in transportation, making fish more readily available and less expensive. In contrast, in North America aquaculture did not really take off until the late 20th century.
The growth of aquaculture is a modern phenomenon, with around 97% of species currently farmed having been domesticated since the beginning of the 20th century. This is in part due to advances in research and also due to the decline of fisheries and overexploitation of natural stocks, making fish a more scarce and expensive source of protein.
The first artificial fertilisation of fish (salmonid) gametes took place in France in 1842; and in 1866 in the USA and Norway for the cod. The emergence of fish farming in Europe at the beginning of the 20th Century was largely linked to the transfer of technology for the artificial reproduction of rainbow trout, which was achieved for the first time in 1874 in the USA.
Within the last half of the 20th century, consumption of fish more than doubled, from 40 million tonnes in 1970 to 86 million tonnes in 1998. As a consequence, aquaculture is the fastest growing agricultural sector, in particular mariculture, which is now reaching a peak and will continue to expand over the next few years, both in terms of diversification of cultured species and scale of production. In the early 1950's, aquaculture production amounted to less than 1 million tonnes; by 2004 it had reached almost 60 million tonnes. The Asian sub-continent accounts for over 90% of the total world production, with China alone producing 50%. Currently, around 16% of animal protein consumed on a world scale is derived from fish, with over a billion people dependent on fish as a main source of protein.

See also

Information was sourced from the following websites: